Indicative Hardware requirement for an IoT system
The hardware for most commonly used IoT system are given below
Hardware modules developed by Webyfy IoT
List of common hardware modules designed and developed by Webyfy IoT and its functionalities. The list is ONLY indicative. Scores more are not presented here due business reasons.
|Sensors||Webyfy IoT has developed several commonly used sensor modules to be directly plugged into the system.|
|Analog signal terminal with isolation||Accepts the data from sensor which gives out Analog signals and processes them. Communicates to a data collation module through an optical isolation segment. It has a few variants in terms of the number of data lines|
|Digital signal terminal with Isolation||Accepts digital signal and passes them to the data collation module through an optical isolation segment It has a few variants in terms of the number of data lines and tamper proof feature.|
|Relay output terminal with isolation||This module optically isolates the output signal from the data collation module and provides signal for the relay coil to be excited.This has several variations as per number of terminals, breaking capacity, solid-state or mechanical relays, only activation signals etc|
|Relay output terminal with isolation and equipment current sensing||This is similar to the relay output terminal but has the capacity to sense current taken by the equipment activated by the relay. It also has a variant in which detects the presence of an activation current.|
|Serial output device terminal module||This module connects a serial device (Sensor or actuator) to the data collation module. It may be of I2C / USB/ SPI/UART signal type.|
|Data Collation Module||This module connects to a sensor terminal module and also to a data transmission module. This intelligent module processes the data and communicates with local or remote processing unit as per design. It can accept any type of wired or wireless data communication module.There are a few variants to the data communication module based on the number of connections, processing capability, data storage etc.|
|Data Communication Modules||These modules help to interconnect any protocol to any other protocol without loss of data integrity. For example, BLE mesh to Ethernet/Wi-Fi, LoRa to RS485, RS485 to USB etc|
|SPU – Spot (Local) Data Processing Module||There are a few SPUs developed by Webyfy IoT. Based on the processing requirements suitable SPU may be used.|
|Webyfy WAN Module||Webyfy WAN module is being released. It will have two 4G connections, broadband connectivity, BLE and 4 LAN ports also with data storage capability.|
Types of sensors supported by the system
|This type of sensor output is ON/OFF type. Most of the common ones are the ones which uses magnetic Reed switches, or simple electrical switches activated by a mechanical device. These are inert sensors and mostly does not require any additional power supply for its activation. The sensor can also be designed to detect tampering of the wiring connecting the sensor.|
|These sensors give out an analog value based on the sensed parameter. For example, Pressure sensing. This is an active device that needs external power supply to operate. The variation is in terms of voltage variations and is mostly from 0 to 3.1 V DC, or 0 to 5 V DC, or 3 to 12 V DC etc. Webyfy has developed module to convert industry standard 4 to 20 milli Amp devices into a standard analog sensing mode.|
|Pulse counter is one which gives out pluses based on rotation or similar movement of a mechanical device. An example is the Hall effect sensor, sensing the moving of a magnet across it for measuring the number of rotations. This is an active device that needs external power supply to operate. Appropriate logic converts the pluses to measured parameter like RPM or Litres per minute (flow) etc|
|Pulse width-based (PWM) communication can be for a sensor and also for an actuator. The PWM module creates appropriate output signals for the actuation of external modules like controlling the intensity of lights or speed of motors etc. The system can also accept PWM signals from an external entity and convert them into appropriate measured or controlled entity.|
|Many devices provide SPI outputs or accept SPI signals for control. Webyfy hardware has the capability to accept and process SPI data. Custom software may need to be written to process the specific data structure given out by the external devices.|
|Just like SPI signals, Webyfy hardware has the capability to facilitate and process I2C data.|
|Significant serial communication devices use this protocol. Webyfy hardware has intelligent modules to process a UART communication with any third-party device.|
|Quite rarely some devices many need an analog signal for control. Dedicated channels are provided for providing analog outputs to external devices. This is different from the 4 to 20 Milli Amperes devices.|
|This is the most common form for energizing an external device. Webyfy has several versions of this. They are based on the number of channels controlled, breaking capacity of the relay, solid state or mechanical relays, module with relays or only control signals etc. In addition, Webyfy also provides the facility for output current measurement or current detection for assuring the activation of the intended equipment.|
Data Communication Modules
Webyfy IoT has developed several communication modules encompassing all the standard communication protocols. The modules spread across wired and wireless modes. Other protocols shall be added as per need of customer.
|Wireless modes of data communication supported by REACH||Wi-Fi the common means of data communication wirelessly for bulk data transfer. In REACH, it is the primary means of data transfer amongst local processing devices, WAN modules or Protocol convertors|
|REACH supports both individual BLE connection and BLE mesh|
|Sub giga Hz communication is the best suited for home and office automation and are low energy devices|
|LoRa is a propriety protocol which has very high range with low power consumption.|
|This protocol is used for data communication in commercial and domestic installations|
|This is the ideal for low data transfer rate over WAN. This needs a service provider to operate.|
|This protocol is being tried in many a market and is ideal for low data transfer rates. Many service providers are in the process of implementing|
|Offers the largest bandwidth in India presently. 5G is in the offing. REACH as hardware modules support two concurrent connections from different service providers.|
|Wired – Through wire data communication Modules||USB Communication is used for short distance. This is normally used when a data collation module is to be connected to a Processing Device|
|This mode is supported by many industry standard devices to exchange data over a few feet of cable run.|
|RS422 is a high speed and long-distance data transmission. Generally used between one transmitter receiver pair. Normally can drive up to 10 receivers.|
|The RS485 similar to the RS422. It can manage up to 32 transmitter receiver pairs.|
|Weigand is a communication protocol used in connecting up security devices like finger print scanner and such access control systems.|
|Ethernet communication is used when long distance – up to 100 meters - bulk data communication is required. Range extended through LAN Switches.|
|WAN communication is enabled through this. May have conventional PSTN broadband connection or high band width Fibre to home connection.|
Indicative Processing Hardware Node Architecture and Sample nodes
The main nodes in a network are the data processing nodes, multiple types of data collation nodes, etc. There can be multiples of these nodes in a network.
A typical Data processing node at a location is given below.
The image below is that of an assembled node with the above configuration with an ATOM processor as its main processor. It can process video, audio, sensor and actuator data. It connects scores of sensor/Actuator data collation nodes with multiple communication protocols.
The network can also have independent data collation nodes which can connect to scores of sensing and actuating devices. These devices are connected to the main processing module through appropriate communication mode or through a protocol convertor.
The number of connections varies according to the requirement. The standard modules are assembled to create the required configuration.
REACH also has small data collation modules for connecting with small number of devices.
The number of connections can vary and the mode of data transmission can also be based on the application